Universal Serial Bus. A standard Input/Output bus that supports very high transmission rates. Up to 120 devices can be daisy-chained to a USB port.
Software Development Kit. A set of development utilities meant for writing software applications, usually associated with specific environments.
Guarantee that a data (or code) has not been modified in transit. Integrity is an essential role of cryptography systems.
Guarantee that a message will be legible to no-one other than the intended recipient. Confidentiality is an essential part of cryptography systems.
The process whereby a card, terminal or person proves who they are. A fundamental part of many cryptography systems.
Application Programming Interface: A definition of calling conventions through which an application program accesses to other services such as the operating system, drivers, databases, or middleware layers.
Advanced Encryption Standard: A secret-key encryption algorithm.
Any PICC which contains data formatted according to the specification published by NFC Forum specifications. Doing so, the data are 'open' and therefore understandable by any compliant application.
An international association that aims to standardize the applications of NFC in the 13.56MHz range. Their main contribution is the NFC Tags specification.
Near-field communication. A subset of RFID, where the operating distance is much shorter than the wavelength of the radio waves involved. This is the case for both ISO 14443 and ISO 15693: the carrier frequency is 13.56MHz, leading to a wavelength of 22m. The proximity and vicinity ranges are shorter than this wavelength.
Radio-frequency identification. This is the general name for any system using radio waves for M2M communication (machine to machine, in our case PCD/VCD to PICC/VICC).
NFC tag (PICC)
Proximity integrated-circuit card. This is the standard name for any contactless card compliant with the ISO 14443 standards (proximity: less than 10cm). This could either be a smartcard or a memory card, or also any NFC object running in card emulation mode. Common names are contactless card, or RFID card, NFC tag.
reader (Microprocessor-based card)
An ICC (or a PICC) whose chip is a small computer. This is the case of high-end cards used in payment, transport, eID/passports, access control... Key features are security, ability to store a large amount of data and to run an application inside the chip. Most of the time they implement the command set defined by ISO 7816-4.
Coupling device or coupler. A device able to communicate with an ICC. This is what everybody calls a smartcard reader. Technically speaking it could be seen as a gateway between the computer and the card.