Software Development Kit. A set of development utilities meant for writing software applications, usually associated with specific environments.
The de-facto standard to interface Personal Computers with Smart Cards (and smartcard readers of course). SpringCard PC/SC Readers comply with this standard. This makes those products usable on most operating systems, using an high-level and standardized API.
The MIFARE DESFire is a special release of Philips SmartMX platform. It is sold already programmed with a general purpose software (the DESFire operating system).
This trademark of NXP (formerly Philips Semiconductors) is the generic brand name of their PICC products. Billions of Mifare Classic cards have been deployed since the 90's. This is a family of wired-logic PICCs were data storage is divided into sectors and protected by a proprietary1 stream cipher called CRYPTO1. Every sector is protected by 2 access keys called 'key A' and 'key B'. NXP also offers another family of wired-logic PICCs called Mifare UltraLight (adopted by NFC Forum as Type 2 NFC Tags). Mifare SmartMX (and former Pro/ProX) is a family of microprocessor-based PICCs that may run virtually any smartcard application, typically on top a JavaCard operating system. Mifare Desfire is a particular microprocessor-based PICC that runs a single general-purpose application.
Application protocol datagram unit. These are the frames that are exchanged at application-level between an application running on the computer and a smartcard. The format of those frames is defined by ISO 7816-4 and checked by the system's PC/SC stack. The command (application to card) is called a C-APDU and consists at least of four bytes denoted CLA (class), INS (instruction), P1 and P2 (parameters). The response (card to application) is called a R-APDU and consists at least of two bytes denoted SW1, SW2 (status word). Note that this is a request/response scheme: the smartcard has no way to send something to the application unless the application asks for it.
A particular type of NFC Tag which contains an URI (action to be performed: open a web page, send a SMS, call a phone number...) and a Title (explanation to be displayed to the user).
An international association that aims to standardize the applications of NFC in the 13.56MHz range. Their main contribution is the NFC Tags specification.
Near-field communication. A subset of RFID, where the operating distance is much shorter than the wavelength of the radio waves involved. This is the case for both ISO 14443 and ISO 15693: the carrier frequency is 13.56MHz, leading to a wavelength of 22m. The proximity and vicinity ranges are shorter than this wavelength.
contactless reader (PCD)
Proximity coupling device. A device able to communicate with a PICC, i.e. a contactless reader compliant with ISO 14443.
reader (Microprocessor-based card)
An ICC (or a PICC) whose chip is a small computer. This is the case of high-end cards used in payment, transport, eID/passports, access control... Key features are security, ability to store a large amount of data and to run an application inside the chip. Most of the time they implement the command set defined by ISO 7816-4.
Coupling device or coupler. A device able to communicate with an ICC. This is what everybody calls a smartcard reader. Technically speaking it could be seen as a gateway between the computer and the card.
Integrated-circuit card. This is the standard name for a plastic card holding a silicon chip (an integrated circuit) compliant with the ISO 7816 standards. A common name is smartcard.