Glossary

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I2C -  I²C is a serial computer bus invented by Philips that is used to attach low-speed peripherals to a motherboard, embedded system, or cellphone. The name is an abbreviation for Inter-Integrated Circuit. I²C uses only two bidirectional open-collector lines, serial data (SDA) and serial clock (SCL), pulled up with resistors.
- Synonyms: I²C
ICC -  Integrated-circuit card. This is the standard name for a plastic card holding a silicon chip (an integrated circuit) compliant with the ISO 7816 standards. A common name is smartcard.
- Synonyms: smartcard, smartcards, ICCs
ICCD -  Integrated Circuit Card Device. A particular implementation of CCID, where the "reader" and the "smartcard" are a single device. The "smartcard" is actually an electronic component and not a plastic card.
- Synonyms: communication port, comm. port, serial port
Integrity -  Guarantee that a data (or code) has not been modified in transit. Integrity is an essential role of cryptography systems.
- Synonyms: 3DES, TDES, Triple DES, Triple-DES
Internal Authentication -  The procedure used to prove that the card is genuine using an algorithm, a random value and a secret key. The authentication process can be further distinguished between passive authentication in which the same values are used each time (e.g., PIN) and active authentication in which an algorithm and variable values are used.
- Synonyms: NFCIP-2
Interoperability -  The ability of products manufactured by different companies to operate correctly with one another.
- Synonyms: 3DES, TDES, Triple DES, Triple-DES
ISO 14443 -  This international standard defines the PCD/PICC communication scheme. It is divided into 4 layers: 1. Defines the hardware characteristics of the PICC, 2. Defines the carrier frequency and the bit-level communication scheme, 3. Defines the frame-level communication scheme and the session opening sequence (anti-collision), 4. Defines the transport-level communication scheme (sometimes called “T=CL”). The application-level is out of the scope of ISO 14443. Most microprocessor-based PICCs implement ISO 7816-4 on top of ISO 14443-4. A lot of wired logic PICCs (NXP Mifare family, ST MicroElectronics ST/SR families, to name a few) implements only a subset of ISO 14443, and have their own set of functions on top of either ISO 14443-2 or ISO 14443-3. Note that ISO 14443-2 and ISO 14443-3 are divided into 2 protocols called 'A' and 'B'. A PCD shall implement both, but the PICCs implement only one of them1. Four communication baudrates are possible: 106 kbit/s is mandatory, higher baudrates (212, 424 or 848 kbit/s) are optional.
- Synonyms: T=CL
ISO 15693 -  This international standard defines the VCD/VICC communication scheme. It is divided into 3 layers: 1. Defines the hardware characteristics of the VICC, 2. Defines the carrier frequency and the bit-level communication scheme, 3. Defines the frame-level communication scheme, the session opening sequence (anti-collision/inventory), and the command set of the VICC. All VICCs are memory chips. Their data storage area is divided into blocks. The size of the blocks and the number of them depend on the VICC. Note that ISO 18000-3 mode 1 is the same as ISO 15693
- Synonyms: T=CL
ISO 18092 -  NFC Interface and Protocol-1 : This international standard defines a communication scheme (most of the time refered as “peer to peer mode”) where two peer “objects” are able to communicate together (and not only a PCD and a PICC). The underlying protocol is ISO 14443-A at 106 kbit/s and the Sony Felica protocol at 212 and 424 kbit/s.
- Synonyms: NFCIP-1
ISO 21481 -  NFC Interface and Protocol-2 : This international standard defines how an NFC object shall be able to emulate an ISO 14443 PICC (and maybe an ISO 15693 VICC). When NFC objects are running in this “card emulation mode”, any PCD/VCD is able to communicate with them.
- Synonyms: NFCIP-2
ISO 7810 -  This international standard defines the size of the smartcards. The 'credit card' format (86x54mm) is called ID-1. A smaller format has been introduced for SIM cards (used in mobile phone) or SAM (secure authentication module, used for payment or transport applications) and is called ID-000. Bigger formats are ID-2 for ID-cards and ID-3 for passports.
- Synonyms: ID-1, ID-000, ID-2, ID-3, mini-SIM
ISO 7816-3 -  This international standard defines two communication protocols for ICCs: T=0 and T=1. A compliant reader must support both of them.
- Synonyms: T=0, T=1
ISO 7816-4 -  This international standard defines both a communication scheme and a command set. The communication scheme is made of APDUs. The command set assumes that the card is structured the same way as a computer disk drive: directories and files could be selected (SELECT instruction) and accessed for reading or writing (READ BINARY, UPDATE BINARY instructions). More than 40 instructions are defined by the standard, but most cards implement only a small subset, and often add their own (vendor-specific) instructions.
- Synonyms: T=0, T=1