Transistor-Transistor Logic. All standardized common TTL circuits operate with a 5 volt power supply. A TTL signal is defined as "low" or L when between 0V and 0.8V with respect to the ground terminal, and "high" or H when between 2V and 5V.
Any device that can communicate with a smart card (e.g., reader, coupler...). Certain terminals can operate in standalone mode, while others must be connected to a central information system to access an application.
Subscriber Identification Module. A smart card for mobile phone systems (GSM) holding the subscriber's ID number, security information and memory for a personal directory of numbers thus allowing him to call from any device.
A hash algorithm developed by RSA Lab.
A hash algorithm developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Security Agency.
I²C (Secret Key)
A cryptographic system that uses a single key for encrypting and signing data.
Software Development Kit. A set of development utilities meant for writing software applications, usually associated with specific environments.
Security Access Module. A dedicated microprocessor unit that conducts active authentication with a memory or microprocessor card. The SAM is often a smartcard in the ID-000 form factor.
RS-485 is an OSI Model physical layer electrical specification of a two-wire, half-duplex, multipoint serial connection. The standard specifies a differential form of signalling.
RS-232 is a standard for serial binary data interconnection between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. The RS-232 standard defines the voltage ±12 V levels that correspond to logical one and logical zero levels.
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman. The most widely used public key encryption algorithm, named after its creators. Also the name of the company who manages the PKSC standards.
I²C (Public Key)
A cryptographic system that uses two different keys (public and private) for encrypting and signing data. The most well-know public key algorithm is RSA.
Point Of Sale terminal.
Public Key Infrastructure. The infrastructure necessary to manage and enable the effective use of public key encryption technology, particularly on a large scale.
Public-Key Cryptography Standards. A set of standards developed by the RSA Laboratories.
Personal Identification Number. The number or code that a cardholder must type in to confirm that he or she is the genuine cardholder.
Process during which a smart card is modified to contain the information for one person. Graphical personalization modifies the visual aspect of the card (holder's name, photograph). Electrical personalization modifies the information in the card's chip.
The de-facto standard to interface Personal Computers with Smart Cards (and smartcard readers of course). SpringCard PC/SC Readers comply with this standard. This makes those products usable on most operating systems, using an high-level and standardized API.
One or more bits appended to a message in order to ensure that it contains the required number of bits or bytes.
Open Systems Interconnection. A model that was proposed by the ISO as common framework to design the communication standards. OSI uses a modular approach, dividing different functions into seven distinct layers.
A transaction during which a direct connection is made to a central computer facility (usually via the public telephone network, computer networks, or the Internet).
A transaction during which no direct connection is made to a central computer facility.
OpenCard Framework. The framework that provides programmers with an interface for the development of smart card applications in Java.
Guarantee that a sender cannot falsely deny having sent a message. Non-repudiation is an essential role of cryptography systems.
A value that is used with a cryptographic algorithm to encrypt (or sign) data. The longer the key, the more secure the encryption.
Java Virtual Machine. An essential element of the Java programming language. The JVM is an abstract computing machine with its own instruction set and memory. A JVM is included in each release of Java (J2ME, J2SE and J2EE).
A set of specifications for running a subset of Java on a smart card.
A network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems. Java was specifically designed so that programs could be safely downloaded to remote devices (e.g., Web pages, smart cards, etc.).
I²C is a serial computer bus invented by Philips that is used to attach low-speed peripherals to a motherboard, embedded system, or cellphone. The name is an abbreviation for Inter-Integrated Circuit. I²C uses only two bidirectional open-collector lines, serial data (SDA) and serial clock (SCL), pulled up with resistors.